You may have heard the disturbing story of Maddie de Garay, who in July 2020, aged 12, participated in Pfizer’s Covid vaccine trial of adolescents aged 12-15. Within 24 hours of receiving the second dose in early January 2021, Maddie experienced “zapping pain up and down her spine with severe abdominal pain… her toes and fingers turned white and were ice cold”. She now can barely see, suffers from tinnitus, mobility issues, vomiting, blood in her urine, numbness in her body and has at least 10-20 seizures a day. Yet her injury was recorded in the vaccine trial data as “abdominal pain” and it was asserted without investigation to be not related to the vaccine.
Another case, similarly disturbing, has now emerged of an adverse reaction during a Pfizer trial that was not recorded in the trial data, raising concerns about the integrity of the trial data and the possibility of fraud.
Augusto Roux is a 35-year old lawyer from Buenos Aires, Argentina who volunteered for Pfizer’s Covid vaccine phase 3 trial. He did so to protect his mother, who has emphysema.
On the way home after his second dose on September 9th 2020, he began feeling unwell, developed a high fever and felt very ill. He fainted on September 11th and went to the hospital on September 12th. The hospital ran tests, including a CAT scan of his chest, which showed an abnormal collection of fluid around the outside of the heart, indicating pericarditis (a form of heart inflammation).
On September 14th he was discharged, with the doctor writing in his discharge note that he had suffered an adverse reaction to the vaccine. Augusto was also told by hospital staff that there had been a considerable number of people from the clinical trial coming to the hospital – one nurse estimated staff had seen around 300 people – so his experience was not new to them. Around 3,000 trial participants had been enrolled before Augusto, so, if the nurse’s estimate is accurate, this would be a hospitalisation rate of 10%.
Following his adverse reaction, Augusto asked to see his trial clinical records, but those running the trial refused. Being a lawyer, Augusto went to law to get access to his records, which took over a year. Once he saw them, he could well imagine why someone might not want them to be released.
In hospital, Augusto had tested negative for Covid, and the doctor at the hospital had written that his condition was due to the vaccine. However, when Augusto contacted the trial site on September 14th to notify the investigators he had been in hospital, they wrote down in his clinical trial record that he had been admitted for a “bilateral pneumonia” that had nothing to do with the “investigational product” – the vaccine – even though that was not what he told them or what the doctor who examined him had stated.
For obvious reasons, Augusto was keen to know whether he’d had the vaccine or not. However, the principal investigator for the trial, Fernando Polack (pictured below), had inaccurately claimed that he could only be unblinded if his life were in danger. Augusto appealed to ANMAT, the Argentinian equivalent of the FDA, and following a formal hearing on October 9th 2020 it forced the trial investigators to tell Augusto that he had, indeed, received the vaccine.
The clinical trial notes reveal that two days prior to this hearing, on October 7th, “at the request of the sponsor” (Pfizer), the adverse event code was updated from pneumonia to “COVID-19 disease”. This is despite Augusto testing negative at the time of his admission. (Conveniently for Pfizer, the COVID-19 ‘diagnosis’ would not be included in the trial vaccine efficacy calculations due to the negative test.)
Even more disturbing, on October 8th, Polack wrote in Augusto’s clinical trial records that he had had an attack of “severe anxiety” starting on September 23rd (not caused by the vaccine, naturally). Polack added that Augusto suspected a conspiracy between the two hospitals, described his anxiety as “constitutional”, and noted that it was ongoing, evidenced by his pursuing his appeal to ANMAT. On October 11th, Polack had this mental health diagnosis added to his actual medical records.
Dr. David Healy, who has interviewed Augusto and seen the medical records in question, comments that “there is nothing in any record that indicates that Dr. Polack or any other doctor attempted on September 23rd to establish whether Augusto had a mental disorder”. He adds:
Augusto points to the notes of October 8th and 11th as evidence that this idea was invented just around the time the ANMAT hearing was about to happen. He states that it is in breach of Argentinian law for Dr. Polack to have diagnosed someone with a medical condition that the person does not have – and to have entered it into his medical record.
Note that Polack is a paediatrician so lacks the qualification to make mental health diagnoses, especially without any formal assessment.
Polack is a key player in the Pfizer Covid vaccine trials. He was the lead author on the December 2020 NEJM paper on the safety and efficacy of the vaccine. Israeli academic Josh Guetzkow notes that he is also one of the directors of i-trials, the site management organisation “paid handsomely by Pfizer to run the trial in Argentina (the largest site of the trial by far)”. Guetzkow adds:
If he raised an alarm about the vaccine safety, his company would have lost a ton of money and would be an unlikely choice by any company to run any trials in the future. So to say that he had an interest in achieving a positive trial outcome would be quite an understatement. There may be other conflicts we’re not aware of.
The evidence of malpractice and possible fraud in the Pfizer Covid vaccine trials is certainly stacking up now. But very few people are aware of it as it is mostly only being reported in alternative media. When will mainstream outlets start following up properly on this potentially massive story?
Ivermectin has powerful antitumor effects, including the inhibition of proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenic activity, in a variety of cancer cells. This may be related to the regulation of multiple signaling pathways by ivermectin through PAK1 kinase. On the other hand, ivermectin promotes programmed cancer cell death, including apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis. Ivermectin induces apoptosis and autophagy is mutually regulated. Interestingly, ivermectin can also inhibit tumor stem cells and reverse multidrug resistance and exerts the optimal effect when used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.
Abbreviations: ASC, Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD; ALCAR, acetyl-L-carnitine; CSCs, Cancer stem cells; DAMP, Damage-associated molecular pattern; EGFR, Epidermal growth factor receptor; EBV, Epstein-Barr virus; EMT, Epithelial mesenchymal-transition; GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid; GSDMD, Gasdermin D; HBV, Hepatitis B virus; HCV, Hepatitis C virus; HER2, Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; HMGB1, High mobility group box-1 protein; HSP27, Heat shock protein 27; LD50, median lethal dose; LDH, Lactate dehydrogenase; IVM, Ivermectin; MDR, Multidrug resistance; NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine; OCT-4, Octamer-binding protein 4; PAK1, P-21-activated kinases 1; PAMP, Pathogen-associated molecular pattern; PARP, poly (ADP- ribose) polymerase; P-gp, P-glycoprotein; PRR, pattern recognition receptor; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; STAT3, Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3; SID, SIN3-interaction domain; siRNA, small interfering RNA; SOX-2, SRY-box 2; TNBC, Triple-negative breast cancer; YAP1, Yes-associated protein 1
Chemical compounds reviewed in this article: ivermectin(PubChem CID：6321424), avermectin(PubChem CID：6434889), selamectin(PubChem CID：9578507), doramectin(PubChem CID：9832750), moxidectin(PubChem CID：9832912)
Keywords: ivermectin, cancer, drug repositioning
Ivermectin is a macrolide antiparasitic drug with a 16-membered ring that is widely used for the treatment of many parasitic diseases such as river blindness, elephantiasis and scabies. Satoshi ōmura and William C. Campbell won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the excellent efficacy of ivermectin against parasitic diseases. Recently, ivermectin has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of several tumor cells by regulating multiple signaling pathways. This suggests that ivermectin may be an anticancer drug with great potential. Here, we reviewed the related mechanisms by which ivermectin inhibited the development of different cancers and promoted programmed cell death and discussed the prospects for the clinical application of ivermectin as an anticancer drug for neoplasm therapy.
Ivermectin(IVM) is a macrolide antiparasitic drug with a 16-membered ring derived from avermectin that is composed of 80% 22,23-dihydroavermectin-B1a and 20% 22,23-dihydroavermectin-B1b . In addition to IVM, the current avermectin family members include selamectin, doramectin and moxidectin [, , , ] (Fig. 1 ). IVM is currently the most successful avermectin family drug and was approved by the FDA for use in humans in 1978 . It has a good effect on the treatment of parasitic diseases such as river blindness, elephantiasis, and scabies. The discoverers of IVM, Japanese scientist Satoshi ōmura and Irish scientist William C. Campbell, won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2015 [7,8]. IVM activates glutamate-gated chloride channels in the parasite, causing a large amount of chloride ion influx and neuronal hyperpolarization, thereby leading to the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to destroy nerves, and the nerve transmission of muscle cells induces the paralysis of somatic muscles to kill parasites [9,10]. IVM has also shown beneficial effects against other parasitic diseases, such as malaria [11,12], trypanosomiasis , schistosomiasis , trichinosis  and leishmaniasis .
The chemical structures of ivermectin and other avermectin family compounds in this review.
IVM not only has strong effects on parasites but also has potential antiviral effects. IVM can inhibit the replication of flavivirus by targeting the NS3 helicase ; it also blocks the nuclear transport of viral proteins by acting on α/β-mediated nuclear transport and exerts antiviral activity against the HIV-1 and dengue viruses . Recent studies have also pointed out that it has a promising inhibitory effect on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has caused a global outbreak in 2020 . In addition, IVM shows potential for clinical application in asthma  and neurological diseases . Recently scientists have discovered that IVM has a strong anticancer effect.
Since the first report that IVM could reverse tumor multidrug resistance (MDR) in 1996 , a few relevant studies have emphasized the potential use of IVM as a new cancer
treatment [, , , , ]. Despite the large number of related studies, there are still some key issues that have not been resolved. First of all, the specific mechanism of IVM-mediated cytotoxicity in tumor cells is unclear; it may be related to the effect of IVM on various signaling pathways, but it is not very clear overall. Second, IVM seems to induce mixed cell death in tumor cells, which is also a controversial issue. Therefore, this review summarized the latest findings on the anticancer effect of IVM and discussed the mechanism of the inhibition of tumor proliferation and the way that IVM induces tumor programmed cell death to provide a theoretical basis for the use of IVM as a potential anticancer drug. As the cost of the research and development of new anticancer drugs continues to increase, drug repositioning has become increasingly important. Drug repositioning refers to the development of new drug indications that have been approved for clinical use . For some older drugs that are widely used for their original indications and have clinical data and safety information, drug repositioning allows them to be developed via a cheaper and faster cycle and to be used more effectively in clinical use clinically . Here, we systematically summarized the anticancer effect and mechanism of IVM, which is of great significance for the repositioning of IVM for cancer treatment.
2. The role of IVM in different cancers
2.1. Breast cancer
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor produced by gene mutation in breast epithelial cells caused by multiple carcinogens. The incidence of breast cancer has increased each year, and it has become one of the female malignant tumors with the highest incidence in globally. On average, a new case is diagnosed every 18 seconds worldwide [30,31]. After treatment with IVM, the proliferation of multiple breast cancer cell lines including MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-10 was significantly reduced. The mechanism involved the inhibition by IVM of the Akt/mTOR pathway to induce autophagy and p-21-activated kinase 1(PAK1)was the target of IVM for breast cancer . Furthermore, Diao’s study showed that IVM could inhibit the proliferation of the canine breast tumor cell lines CMT7364 and CIPp by blocking the cell cycle without increasing apoptosis, and the mechanism of IVM may be related to the inhibition of the Wnt pathway .
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) refers to cancer that is negative for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2) and is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer with the worst prognosis. In addition, there is also no clinically applicable therapeutic drug currently [34,35]. A drug screening study of TNBC showed that IVM could be used as a SIN3-interaction domain (SID) mimic to selectively block the interaction between SID and paired a-helix2. In addition, IVM regulated the expression of the epithelial mesenchymal-transition (EMT) related gene E-cadherin to restore the sensitivity of TNBC cells to tamoxifen, which implies the possibility that IVM functions as an epigenetic regulator in the treatment of cancer.
Recent studies have also found that IVM could promote the death of tumor cells by regulating the tumor microenvironment in breast cancer. Under the stimulation of a tumor microenvironment with a high level of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) outside tumor cells, IVM could enhance the P2 × 4/ P2 × 7/Pannexin-1 mediated release of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) . However, the release of a large amount of HMGB1 into the extracellular environment will promote immune cell-mediated immunogenic death and inflammatory reactions, which will have an inhibitory effect on the growth of tumor cells. Therefore, we believe that the anticancer effect of IVM is not limited to cytotoxicity, but also involves the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. IVM regulates the tumor microenvironment and mediates immunogenic cell death, which may be a new direction for research exploring anticancer mechanisms in the future.
2.2. Digestive system cancer
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. In the past year, more than one million patients with gastric cancer have been diagnosed worldwide . Nambara’s study showed that IVM could significantly inhibit the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vivo and in vitro and that the inhibitory effect of IVM depended on the expression of Yes-associated protein 1(YAP1). The gastric cancer cell lines MKN1 and SH-10-TC have higher YAP1 expression than MKN7 and MKN28 cells, so MKN1 and SH-10-TC cells are sensitive to IVM, while MKN7 and MKN28 are not sensitive to IVM.YAP1 plays an oncogenic role in tumorigenesis, indicating the possibility of the use of IVM as a YAP1 inhibitor for cancer treatment .
In a study that screened Wnt pathway inhibitors, IVM inhibited the proliferation of multiple cancers, including the colorectal cancer cell lines CC14, CC36, DLD1, and Ls174 T, and promoted apoptosis by blocking the Wnt pathway . After intervention with IVM, the expression of caspase-3 in DLD1 and Ls174 T cells increased, indicating that IVM has an apoptosis-inducing effect and inhibits the expression of the downstream genes AXIN2, LGR5, and ASCL2 in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. However, the exact molecular target of IVM that affects the Wnt/β-catenin pathway remains to be explored.
Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Approximately 80% of cases of liver cancer are caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection . IVM could inhibit the development of hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking YAP1 activity in spontaneous liver cancer Mob1b-/-mice .Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor that originates in the bile duct inside and outside the liver. Intuyod’s experiment found that IVM inhibited the proliferation of KKU214 cholangiocarcinoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner . IVM halted the cell cycle in S phase and promoted apoptosis. Surprisingly, gemcitabine-resistant KKU214 cells showed high sensitivity to IVM, which suggested that IVM shows potential for the treatment of tumors that are resistant to conventional chemotherapy drugs.
2.3. Urinary system cancer
Renal cell carcinoma is a fatal malignant tumor of the urinary system derived from renal tubular epithelial cells. Its morbidity has increased by an average of 2% annually worldwide and the clinical treatment effect is not satisfactory [, , ]. Experiments confirmed that IVM could significantly inhibit the proliferation of five renal cell carcinoma cell lines without affecting the proliferation of normal kidney cells, and its mechanism may be related to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction . IVM could significantly reduce the mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibit mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The presence of the mitochondrial fuel acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR), and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), could reverse IVM-induced inhibition. In animal experiments, the immunohistochemical results for IVM-treated tumor tissues showed that the expression of the mitochondrial stress marker HEL was significantly increased, and the results were consistent with those of the cell experiments.
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor derived from prostate epithelial cells, and its morbidity is second only to that of lung cancer among men in Western countries . In Nappi’s experiment, it was found that IVM could enhance the drug activity of the anti-androgen drug enzalutamide in the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP and reverse the resistance of the prostate cancer cell line PC3 to docetaxel . Interestingly, IVM also restored the sensitivity of the triple-negative breast cancer to the anti-estrogen drug tamoxifen , which also implies the potential for IVM to be used in endocrine therapy. Moreover, IVM was also found to have a good inhibitory effect on the prostate cancer cell line DU145 .
2.4. Hematological cancer
Leukemia is a type of malignant clonal disease caused by abnormal hematopoietic stem cells . In an experiment designed to screen potential drugs for the treatment of leukemia, IVM preferentially killed leukemia cells at low concentrations without affecting normal hematopoietic cells . The mechanism was related to the increase in the influx of chloride ions into the cell by IVM, resulting in hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane and induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was also proven that IVM has a synergistic effect with cytarabine and daunorubicin on the treatment of leukemia. Wang’s experiment found that IVM could selectively induce mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, causing chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells to undergo increased caspase-dependent apoptosis compared with normal bone marrow cells . It was also confirmed that IVM inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner, and dasatinib had improved efficacy.
2.5. Reproductive system cancer
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies, resulting in approximately 530,000 new cases and 270,000 deaths worldwide each year. The majority of cervical cancers are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection [54,55]. IVM has been proven to significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of HeLa cells and promote apoptosis . After intervention with IVM, the cell cycle of HeLa cells was blocked at the G1/S phase, and the cells showed typical morphological changes related to apoptosis.
Ovarian cancer is a malignant cancer that lacks early clinical symptoms and has a poor therapeutic response. The 5-year survival rate after diagnosis is approximately 47% [27,57]. In a study by Hashimoto, it found that IVM inhibited the proliferation of various ovarian cancer cell lines, and the mechanism was related to the inhibition of PAK1 kinase . In research to screen potential targets for the treatment of ovarian cancer through the use of an shRNA library and a CRISPR/Cas9 library, the oncogene KPNB1 was detected. IVM could block the cell cycle and induce cell apoptosis through a KPNB1-dependent mechanism in ovarian cancer . Interestingly, IVM and paclitaxel have a synergistic effect on ovarian cancer, and combined treatment in in vivo experiments almost completely inhibited tumor growth. Furthermore, according to a report by Zhang, IVM can enhance the efficacy of cisplatin to improve the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer, and the mechanism is related to the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway .
2.6. Brain glioma
Glioma is the most common cerebral tumor and approximately 100,000 people worldwide are diagnosed with glioma every year. Glioblastoma is the deadliest glioma, with a median survival time of only 14-17 months [61,62]. Experiments showed that IVM inhibited the proliferation of human glioblastoma U87 and T98 G cells in a dose-dependent manner and induced apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner . This was related to the induction of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Moreover, IVM could induce apoptosis of human brain microvascular endothelial cells and significantly inhibit angiogenesis. These results showed that IVM had the potential to resist tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. In another study, IVM inhibited the proliferation of U251 and C6 glioma cells by inhibiting the Akt/mTOR pathway .
In gliomas, miR-21 can regulate the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway and enhance its effects on proliferation and invasion . The DDX23 helicase activity affects the expression of miR-12 . IVM could inhibit the DDX23/miR-12 signaling pathway by affecting the activity of DDX23 helicase, thereby inhibiting malignant biological behaviors. This indicated that IVM may be a potential RNA helicase inhibitor and a new agent for of tumor treatment. However, here, we must emphasize that because IVM cannot effectively pass the blood-brain barrier , the prospect of the use of IVM in the treatment of gliomas is not optimistic.
2.7. Respiratory system cancer
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from epithelial cells of the nasopharyngeal mucosa. The incidence is obviously regional and familial, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is closely related . In a study that screened drugs for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer, IVM significantly inhibited the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in nude mice at doses that were not toxic to normal thymocytes . In addition, IVM also had a cytotoxic effect on a variety of nasopharyngeal cancer cells in vitro, and the mechanism is related to the reduction of PAK1 kinase activity to inhibit the MAPK pathway.
Lung cancer has the highest morbidity and mortality among cancers . Nishio found that IVM could significantly inhibit the proliferation of H1299 lung cancer cells by inhibiting YAP1 activity . Nappi’s experiment also proved that IVM combined with erlotinib to achieved a synergistic killing effect by regulating EGFR activity and in HCC827 lung cancer cells . In addition, IVM could reduce the metastasis of lung cancer cells by inhibiting EMT.
Melanoma is the most common malignant skin tumor with a high mortality rate. Drugs targeting BRAF mutations such as vemurafenib, dabrafenib and PD-1 monoclonal antibodies, including pembrolizumab and nivolumab have greatly improved the prognosis of melanoma [71,72]. Gallardo treated melanoma cells with IVM and found that it could effectively inhibit melanoma activity . Interestingly, IVM could also show activity against BRAF wild-type melanoma cells, and its combination with dapafinib could significantly increase antitumor activity. Additionally, it has been confirmed that PAK1 is the key target of IVM that mediates its anti-melanoma activity, and IVM can also significantly reduce the lung metastasis of melanoma in animal experiments. Deng found that IVM could activate the nuclear translocation of TFE3 and induce autophagy-dependent cell death by dephosphorylation of TFE3 (Ser321) in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells . However, NAC reversed the effect of IVM, which indicated that IVM increased TFE3-dependent autophagy through the ROS signaling pathway.
3. IVM-induced programmed cell death in tumor cells and related mechanisms
IVM induces different programmed cell death patterns in different tumor cells (Table 1). As shown in Table 1, the main form of IVM induced programmed cell death is apoptosis. Apoptosis is a programmed cell death that is regulated by genes to maintain cell stability. It can be triggered by two activation pathways: the endogenous endoplasmic reticulum stress/mitochondrial pathway and the exogenous death receptor pathway [75,76]. The decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and the cytochrome c is released from mitochondria into the cytoplasm was detected after the intervention of IVM in Hela cells .Therefore, we infer that IVM induces apoptosis mainly through the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, morphological changed caused by apoptosis, including chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic body formation were observed. Finally, IVM changed the balance between apoptosis-related proteins by upregulating the protein Bax and downregulating anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, thereby activating caspase-9/-3 to induce apoptosis [48,53,63] (Fig. 2 ).
Mechanisms of IVM-induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent form of programmed cell death. It utilizes lysosomes to eliminate superfluous or damaged organelles in the cytoplasm to maintain homeostasis. It is characterized by double-layered or multilayered vacuolar structures containing cytoplasmic components, which are known as autophagosomes . In recent years, many studies have shown that autophagy is a double-edged sword in tumor development. On the one hand, autophagy can help tumors adapt to the nutritional deficiency of the tumor microenvironment, and to a certain extent, protect tumor cells from chemotherapy- or radiotherapy- induced injury. On the other hand, some autophagy activators can increase the sensitivity of tumors to radiotherapy and chemotherapy by inducing autophagy, and excessive activation of autophagy can also lead to tumor cell death [, , , ]. Overall, the specific environment of tumor cells will determine whether autophagy enhances or inhibits tumor development and improving autophagy activity has also become a new approach in cancer therapy. Programmed cell death mediated by autophagy after IVM intervention and the enhancement of the anticancer efficacy of IVM by regulating autophagy are interesting topics. Intervention with IVM in the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 significantly increased intracellular autophagic flux and the expression of key autophagy proteins such as LC3, Bclin1, Atg5, and the formation of autophagosomes can be observed . However, after using the autophagy inhibitors chloroquine and wortmannin or knocking down Bclin1 and Atg5 by siRNA to inhibit autophagy, the anticancer activity of IVM significantly decreased. This proves that IVM mainly exerts an antitumor effect through the autophagy pathway. In addition, researchers also used the Akt activator CA-Akt to prove that IVM mainly induces autophagy by inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR (Fig. 3). The phenomenon of IVM-induced autophagy has also been reported in glioma and melanoma [ 64,74]. All of the above findings indicate the potential of IVM as an autophagy activator to induce autophagy-dependent death in tumor cells.
Mechanisms of IVM-induced PAK1/Akt/mTOR-mediated autophagy.
3.3. Cross talk between IVM-induced apoptosis and autophagy
The relationship between apoptosis and autophagy is very complicated, and the cross talk between the two plays a vital role in the development of cancer . Obviously, the existing results suggest that IVM-induced apoptosis and autophagy also exhibit cross talk. For example, it was found in SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells that IVM can promote apoptosis as well as autophagy . After using the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 or siRNA to downregulate Beclin1, IVM-induced apoptosis was significantly enhanced, which suggested that enhanced autophagy will reduce IVM-induced apoptosis and that IVM-induced autophagy can protect tumor cells from apoptosis. However, in breast cancer cell experiments, it was also found that IVM could induce autophagy, and enhanced autophagy could increase the anticancer activity of IVM . The latest research shows that in normal circumstances autophagy will prevent the induction of apoptosis and apoptosis-related caspase enzyme activation will inhibit autophagy. However, in special circumstances, autophagy may also help to induce apoptosis or necrosis . In short, the relationship between IVM-induced apoptosis and autophagy involves a complex regulatory mechanism, and the specific molecular mechanism needs further study. We believe that deeper exploration of the mechanism can further guide the use of IVM in the treatment of cancer.
Pyroptosis is a type of inflammatory cell death induced by inflammasomes. The inflammasome is a multimolecular complex containing pattern recognition receptor (PRR), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), and pro-caspase-1. PRR can identify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are structurally stable and evolutionarily conserved on the surface of pathogenic microorganisms and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) produced by damaged cells [84,85]. Inflammasomes initiate the conversion of pro-caspase-1 via self-shearing into activated caspase-1. Activated caspase-1 can cause pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to mature and to be secreted. Gasdermin D(GSDMD)is a substrate for activated caspase-1 and is considered to be a key protein in the execution of pyroptosis [86,87]. In an experiment by Draganov, it was found that the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and activated caspase-1 was significantly increased in breast cancer cells after IVM intervention . In addition, characteristic pyroptosis phenomena such as cell swelling and rupturing were observed. The authors speculated that IVM may mediate the occurrence of pyroptosis via the P2 × 4/P2 × 7/NLRP3 pathway (Fig. 4), but there is no specific evidence to prove this speculation. Interestingly, in ischemia-reperfusion experiments, IVM aggravated renal ischemia via the P2 × 7/NLRP3 pathway and increased the release of proinflammatory cytokines in human proximal tubular cells . Although there is currently little evidences showing that IVM induces pyroptosis, it is important to investigate the role of IVM in inducing pyroptosis in other cancers in future studies and realize that IVM may induce different types of programmed cell death in different types of cancer.
Mechanisms of IVM-induced P2 × 4/P2 × 7/NLRP3-mediated pyroptosis.
4. Anticancer effect of IVM through other pathways
4.1. Cancer stem cells
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a cell population similar to stem cells with characteristics of self-renewal and differentiation potential in tumor tissue [89,90]. Although CSCs are similar to stem cells in terms of function, because of the lack of a negative feedback regulation mechanism for stem cell self-renewal, their powerful proliferation and multidirectional differentiation abilities are unrestricted, which allows CSCs to maintain certain activities during chemotherapy and radiotherapy [, , ]. When the external environment is suitable, CSCs will rapidly proliferate to reactivate the formation and growth of tumors. Therefore, CSCs have been widely recognized as the main cause of recurrence after treatment [93,94]. Guadalupe evaluated the effect of IVM on CSCs in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 . The experimental results showed that IVM would preferentially targeted and inhibited CSCs-rich cell populations compared with other cell populations in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the expression of the homeobox protein NANOG, octamer-binding protein 4 (OCT-4) and SRY-box 2 (SOX-2), which are closely related to the self-renewal and differentiation ability of stem cells in CSCs, were also significantly inhibited by IVM. This suggests that IVM may be used as a potential CSCs inhibitor for cancer therapy. Further studies showed that IVM could inhibit CSCs by regulating the PAK1-STAT3 axis .
4.2. Reversal of tumor multidrug resistance
MDR of tumor cells is the main cause of relapses and deaths after chemotherapy . ATP binding transport family-mediated drug efflux and overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are widely considered to be the main causes of tumor MDR [, , ]. Several studies have confirmed that IVM could reverse drug resistance by inhibiting P-gp and MDR-associated proteins [, , ]. In Didier’s experiments testing the effect of IVM on lymphocytic leukemia, IVM could be used as an inhibitor of P-gp to affect MDR . In Jiang’s experiment, IVM reversed the drug resistance of the vincristine-resistant colorectal cancer cell line HCT-8, doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and the chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line K562 . IVM inhibited the activation of EGFR and the downstream ERK/Akt/NF-kappa B signaling pathway to downregulate the expression of P-gp. Earlier, we mentioned the role of IVM in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer  and gemcitabine-resistant cholangiocarcinoma . These results indicated the significance of applying IVM for the treatment of chemotherapy patients with MDR.
4.3. Enhanced targeted therapy and combined treatment
Targeted treatment of key mutated genes in cancer, such as EGFR in lung cancer and HER2 in breast cancer, can achieve powerful clinical effects [105,106]. HSP27 is a molecular chaperone protein that is highly expressed in many cancers and associated with drug resistance and poor prognosis. It is considered as a new target for cancer therapy . Recent studies have found that IVM could be used as an inhibitor of HSP27 phosphorylation to enhance the activity of anti-EGFR drugs in EGFR/HER2- driven tumors. An experiment found that IVM could significantly enhance the inhibitory effects of erlotinib and cetuximab on lung cancer and colorectal cancer . Earlier, we mentioned that IVM combined with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin , paclitaxel , daunorubicin and cytarabine , or with targeted drugs such as dasatinib  and dapafenib  shows great potential for cancer treatment. The combination of drugs can effectively increase efficacy, reduce toxicity or delay drug resistance. Therefore, combination therapy is the most common method of chemotherapy. IVM has a variety of different mechanisms of action in different cancers, and its potential for synergistic effects and enhanced efficacy in combination therapy was of particular interest to us. Not only does IVM not overlap with other therapies in term of its mechanism of action, but the fact that of IVM has multiple targets suggests that it is not easy to produce IVM resistance. Therefore, continued study and testing of safe and effective combination drug therapies is essential to maximize the anticancer effects of IVM.
5. Molecular targets and signaling pathways involved in the anticancer potential of IVM
As mentioned above, the anticancer mechanism of IVM involves a wide range of signaling pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin, Akt/mTOR, MAPK and other possible targets such as PAK1 and HSP27, as well as other mechanisms of action (Table 2 ). We found that IVM inhibits tumor cell development in a PAK1-dependent manner in most cancers. Consequently, we have concentrated on discussing the role of PAK1 kinase and cross-talk between various pathways and PAK1 to provide new perspectives on the mechanism of IVM function.
As a member of the PAK family of serine/threonine kinases, PAK1 has a multitude of biological functions such as regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, cell movement, cytoskeletal dynamics and transformation . Previous studies have indicated that PAK1 is located at the intersection of multiple signaling pathways related to tumorigenesis and is a key regulator of cancer signaling networks (Fig. 5). The excessive activation of PAK1 is involved in the formation, development, and invasion of various cancers [ 109,110]. Targeting PAK1 is a novel and promising method for cancer treatment, and the development of PAK1 inhibitors has attracted widespread attention . IVM is a PAK1 inhibitor in a variety of tumors, and it has good safety compared to that of other PAK1 inhibitors such as IPA-3. In melanoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma, IVM inhibited cell proliferation activity by inhibiting PAK1 to downregulate the expression of MEK 1/2 and ERK1/2 [69,73]. After IVM intervention in breast cancer, the expression of PAK1 was also significantly inhibited, and the use of siRNA to downregulate the expression of PAK1 in tumor cells significantly reduced the anticancer activity of IVM. Interestingly, IVM could inhibit the expression of PAK1 protein but did not affect the expression of PAK1 mRNA .The proteasome inhibitor MG132 reversed the suppressive effect of IVM, which indicated that IVM mainly degraded PAK1 via the proteasome ubiquitination pathway. We have already mentioned that IVM plays an anticancer role in various tumors by regulating pathways closely related to cancer development. PAK1 is at the junction of these pathways. Overall, we speculate that IVM can regulate the Akt/mTOR, MAPK and other pathways that are essential for tumor cell proliferation by inhibiting PAK1 expression, which plays an anticancer role in most cancers.
Malignant tumors are one of the most serious diseases that threaten human health and social development today, and chemotherapy is one of the most important methods for the treatment of malignant tumors. In recent years, many new chemotherapeutic drugs have entered the clinic, but tumor cells are prone to drug resistance and obvious adverse reactions to these drugs. Therefore, the development of new drugs that can overcome resistance, improve anticancer activity, and reduce side effects is an urgent problem to be solved in chemotherapy. Drug repositioning is a shortcut to accelerate the development of anticancer drugs.
As mentioned above, the broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug IVM, which is widely used in the field of parasitic control, has many advantages that suggest that it is worth developing as a potential new anticancer drug. IVM selectively inhibits the proliferation of tumors at a dose that is not toxic to normal cells and can reverse the MDR of tumors. Importantly, IVM is an established drug used for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as river blindness and elephantiasis. It has been widely used in humans for many years, and its various pharmacological properties, including long- and short-term toxicological effects and drug metabolism characteristics are very clear. In healthy volunteers, the dose was increased to 2 mg/Kg, and no serious adverse reactions were found, while tests in animals such as mice, rats, and rabbits found that the median lethal dose (LD50) of IVM was 10-50 mg/Kg  In addition, IVM has also been proven to show good permeability in tumor tissues . Unfortunately, there have been no reports of clinical trials of IVM as an anticancer drug. There are still some problems that need to be studied and resolved before IVM is used in the clinic.
(1) Although a large number of research results indicate that IVM affects multiple signaling pathways in tumor cells and inhibits proliferation, IVM may cause antitumor activity in tumor cells through specific targets. However, to date, no exact target for IVM action has been found. (2) IVM regulates the tumor microenvironment, inhibits the activity of tumor stem cells and reduces tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. However, there is no systematic and clear conclusion regarding the related molecular mechanism. Therefore, in future research, it is necessary to continue to explore the specific mechanism of IVM involved in regulating the tumor microenvironment, angiogenesis and EMT. (3) It has become increasingly clear that IVM can induce a mixed cell death mode involving apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis depending on the cell conditions and cancer type. Identifying the predominant or most important contributor to cell death in each cancer type and environment will be crucial in determining the effectiveness of IVM-based treatments. (4) IVM can enhance the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs and reduce the production of resistance. Therefore, IVM should be used in combination with other drugs to achieve the best effect, while the specific medication plan used to combine IVM with other drugs remains to be explored.
Most of the anticancer research performed on the avermectin family has been focused on avermectin and IVM until now. Avermectin family drugs such as selamectin [36,41,113], and doramectin  also have anticancer effects, as previously reported. With the development of derivatives of the avermectin family that are more efficient and less toxic, relevant research on the anticancer mechanism of the derivatives still has great value. Existing research is sufficient to demonstrate the great potential of IVM and its prospects as a novel promising anticancer drug after additional research. We believe that IVM can be further developed and introduced clinically as part of new cancer treatments in the near future.
Declaration of Competing Interest
The authors report no declarations of interest.
This work was supported by the Science Research Innovation Team Project of Anhui Colleges and Universities (2016-40), the Bengbu City Natural Science Foundation (2019-12), the Key Projects of Science Research of Bengbu Medical College (BYKY2019009ZD) and National University Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program (201910367001).
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A convergence of horrifying events have set into a motion an irreversible collapse of food production and crop harvests that will lead to global famine all the way through 2024. These events cannot be stopped for the simple reason that plants take time to grow. You can’t create crops instantly, and if they don’t get planted (or they get destroyed), there’s no instant replacement.
The reasons for the coming global famine include:
Floods and droughts causing sharp drops in crop production in China, Russia and the USA, among other nations.
Economic sanctions against Russia causing a halting of exports for food and fertilizer.
War in Ukraine, leading to a halting of the 2022 planting season for wheat, corn, soy and other crops.
War in the Black Sea, blocking ship movements in the ports (such as Odessa) which normally export crops.
The Biden admin’s shutting down of fossil duel production in the USA, adding significant costs to fertilizers and agricultural operations.
Global fiat currency money printing, making food inflation reach atrocious levels.
Importantly, all this coalesces into two primary problems that will now accelerate across the world:
Scarcity, of course, means there’s no remaining supply no matter what the cost. Inflation means the food that is available will be significantly higher in price. Both of them cause people to panic, ultimately leading to widespread civil unrest (see below).
Understanding farm and crop inputs
Farmers are right now reporting a roughly 300% increase in their cost to produce crops such as wheat. This is due to three primary inputs:
The cost of fertilizer and seed.
The cost of fuel to power agricultural equipment.
The availability of tractors and other equipment (and their parts) in order to carry out mechanized agricultural operations.
Importantly, all three of these inputs are heavily strained due to the conditions mentioned above.
In addition to these factors, fuel costs significantly elevate transportation expenses to transport grains to grain storage and milling providers. Thus, rising fuel costs hit farmers twice: First for the cost of running their equipment, and secondly in the transportation costs.
Sadly, it looks like diesel fuel is headed toward $6 / gallon, and this is going to put severe upward pressure on food prices across the board. As I say in the podcast, elections have consequences… and rigged elections have dire consequences. (Joe Biden is punishing America with economic sanctions against our entire energy sector while having no such sanctions on Russia’s energy exports.)
Fertilizer costs have tripled, and fertilizer supply is growing scarce
Fertilizer prices have tripled and will likely go higher, especially as Russia has halted fertilizer exports and shut down natural gas pipelines to Western Europe. As a result, the fertilizer supply is growing scarce. About 5 billion people on the planet depend on fossil fuel-created fertilizer for their primary source of food. Thus, without fertilizer — if it were to go to zero — about 5 billion people starve to death.
I am not predicting the starvation of 5 billion people, since fertilizer production isn’t zero. But it is easily down by 25% – 30% right now, perhaps more, and that means somewhere approaching 2 billion people (or more) are going to face real famine / starvation in the crop seasons ahead. Very few people understand that food comes from fertilizer which is made using hydrocarbons. This is why left-wing activists are so eager to shut down pipelines, having no clue this will shut down their own food production as a result.
Extreme food scarcity to become apparent at the retail level this summer
There is a delay time between crop yield collapse and food scarcity at retail (grocery stores). Right now in March, we are eating the winter harvest of wheat. By late summer, we will be depending on wheat from the spring wheat crops around the world, and those crops just aren’t getting planted at the level necessary to feed the world.
The StrangeSounds.org website recently published a good overview of what they call the “wheat apocalypse.” From that article:
The wheat outlook looks grim… All over the world…
A limited supply of soft white wheat, the primary type of wheat grown in the Inland Northwest, has helped lead to a six-year low for wheat exports from the United States. That’s according to the USDA wheat report for February. The report also states that 71 percent of U.S. winter wheat is being hit by drought in 2022.
Egypt’s food security crisis now poses an existential threat to its economy. The fragile state of Egypt’s food security stems from the agricultural sector’s inability to produce enough cereal grains, especially wheat, and oilseeds to meet even half of the country’s domestic demand.
[China’s] Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Tang Renjian said that rare heavy rainfall last year delayed the planting of about one-third of the normal wheat acreage.
Drought has shriveled Canada’s wheat crop to its smallest in 14 years, and its canola harvest to a nine-year low, a government report showed on Monday.
Parched soils and record-hot temperatures in Canada’s western crop belt sharply reduced farm yields of one of the world’s biggest wheat-exporting countries and largest canola-growing nation. The drought has forced millers and bakers to pay more for spring wheat, and drove canola prices to record highs.
By this summer, food shelves are going to look frighteningly empty across America, Canada and Western Europe
The upshot of all this is that food shelves are going to look downright frightening in 2022, and for the shelves that actually have food, it’s going to cost perhaps twice as much. Some items might see prices triple.
Even Reuters is now openly reporting that a United Nations agency says food inflation has hit 20%. And those are slightly old numbers. By the time they factor in the summer and fall of 2022, it’s going to be much closer to 50%.
Shockingly, food basics are going to require a larger and larger percentage of workers’ paychecks, taking away their ability to pay for fuel (which is also skyrocketing) or to purchase clothing, housing, etc.
The only factor that may actually reduce the demand for global food is the global vaccine die-off caused by mRNA / spike protein injections that are killing people are record numbers. The covid bioweapon, after all, is a depopulation weapon.
The net result is going to be global uprisings and social unrest on a scale we’ve never seen before
As covered in today’s podcast (below), the net effect of all this is going to be global uprisings, chaos and social unrest on an unprecedented scale.
Ever heard the saying about “nine meals from anarchy?” That’s what we’re about to witness later this year, in 2022.
It doesn’t mean that every city will collapse into instant chaos, but food scarcity, food inflation and energy inflation will create conditions of extreme poverty and desperation among the population. As a result, you’re going to witness more of the following:
Flash mob looting of grocery stores, followed by increased security at grocery retailers.
Gunpoint robberies of people exiting grocery stores, carrying groceries.
Highway robberies of transport trucks that are delivering goods to grocery retailers (ripped right out of Venezuela).
Increased carjackings, home invasions and crime derived from desperation and starvation. (While Democrats continue to “defund the police.”)
A freedom of information request revealed some interesting figures.
The Truth Is Coming Out About COVID Deaths
By Joseph Mercola
March 1, 2022 Updated: March 2, 2022
Early on in the COVID pandemic, people suspected that the deaths attributed to the infection were exaggerated. There was plenty of evidence for this. For starters, hospitals were instructed and incentivized to mark any patient who had a positive COVID test and subsequently died within a certain time period as a COVID death.
At the same time, we knew that the PCR test was unreliable, producing inordinate amounts of false positives. Now, the truth is finally starting to come out and, as suspected, the actual death toll is vastly lower than we were led to believe.
COVID Deaths Have Been Vastly Overcounted
In the video above, Dr. John Campbell reviews recent data released by the U.K. government in response to a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. They show that the number of deaths during 2020 in England and Wales, where COVID-19 was the sole cause of death, was 9,400. Of those, 7,851 were aged 65 and older. The median age of death was 81.5 years.
During the first quarter of 2021, there were 6,483 deaths where COVID-19 was the sole cause of death, again with the vast majority, 4,923, occurring in seniors over 65.
A total of 346 died from COVID-19 alone during the second quarter of 2021, and in the third quarter, the COVID death toll was 1,142. Again, these are people with no other underlying conditions that might have caused their death.
So, in all, for the 21 months covering January 2020 through September 2021, the total COVID-19 death toll in England and Wales was 17,371 — a far cry from what’s been reported. As of the end of September 2021, the U.K. government reported there were 137,133 deaths within 28 days of a positive test, and these deaths were therefore all counted as “COVID deaths.”
In a January 19, 2022, press conference, U.K. health secretary Sajid Javid admitted that the daily government figures are unreliable as people have been and continue to die from conditions unrelated to COVID-19, but are included in the count due to a positive test.
He also admitted that about 40% of patients presently counted as hospitalized COVID patients were not admitted due to COVID symptoms. They were admitted for other conditions and simply tested positive.
COVID Has Primarily Killed Those Close to Death Anyway
Campbell also points out that of the 17,371 people who had COVID-19 as the sole cause of death, 13,597 were 65 or older. The average age of death in the U.K. from COVID in 2021 was 82.5 years. Compare that to the projected life expectancy in the U.K., which is 79 for men and 82.9 for women. This hardly constitutes an emergency, least of all for healthy school- and working-age individuals.
Campbell then goes on to review data on excess deaths from cancer. Estimates suggest there have been an extra 50,000 cancer deaths over the past 18 months — deaths that normally would not have occurred. Delayed diagnosis and inability to receive proper treatment due to COVID restrictions are thought to be primary reasons for this.
As noted by Campbell, when we’re looking at excess deaths, we really need to take things like age of death into account. COVID-19, apparently, killed mostly people who were close to the end of life expectancy anyway, so the loss of quality life years isn’t particularly significant.
That needs to be weighed against the deaths of people in their 30s, 40s and 50s who have died from untreated cancer and other chronic diseases, thanks to COVID restrictions.
CDC Highlights Role of Comorbidities in Vaxxed COVID Deaths
In the U.S., data suggest a similar pattern of exaggerated COVID death statistics. Most recently, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention director Dr. Rochelle Walensky cited research showing that 77.8% of people who had received the COVID jab yet died from/with COVID also had, on average, four comorbidities.
“So, really, these are people who were unwell to begin with,” Walensky said. But while Walensky points to this study as evidence that the COVID shot works wonders to reduce the risk of death, the exact same pattern has been shown in the unvaccinated. People without comorbidities have very little to worry about when it comes to COVID.
“COVID is a lethal risk only for the sickest among us, and that’s true whether you’re ‘vaccinated’ or not.”
For example, a 2020 study found 88% of hospitalized COVID patients in New York City had two or more comorbidities, 6.3% had one underlying health condition and 6.1% had none. At that time, there were no COVID jabs available.
Similarly, in late August 2020, the CDC published data showing only 6% of the total death count had COVID-19 listed as the sole cause of death. The remaining 94% had had an average of 2.6 comorbidities or preexisting health conditions that contributed to their deaths. So, yes, COVID is a lethal risk only for the sickest among us, just as Walensky said, but that’s true whether you’re “vaccinated” or not.
Most COVID Deaths Likely Due to Ventilator Malpractice
In addition to the issue of whether people die “from” COVID or “with” a SARS-CoV-2 positive test, there’s the issue of whether incorrect treatment is killing COVID patients. By early April 2020, doctors warned that putting COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation increased their risk of death.
One investigation showed a staggering 80% of COVID-19 patients in New York City who were placed on ventilators died, causing some doctors to question their use. U.K. data put that figure at 66% and a small study in Wuhan found 86% of ventilated patients died. In an April 8, 2020, article, STAT News reported:
“Many patients have blood oxygen levels so low they should be dead. But they’re not gasping for air, their hearts aren’t racing, and their brains show no signs of blinking off from lack of oxygen.
That is making critical care physicians suspect that blood levels of oxygen, which for decades have driven decisions about breathing support for patients with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress, might be misleading them about how to care for those with COVID-19.
In particular, more and more are concerned about the use of intubation and mechanical ventilators. They argue that more patients could receive simpler, noninvasive respiratory support, such as the breathing masks used in sleep apnea, at least to start with and maybe for the duration of the illness.”
At the time, emergency room physician Dr. Cameron Kyle-Sidell argued that patients’ symptoms had more in common with altitude sickness than pneumonia. Similarly, a paper by critical care Drs. Luciano Gattinoni and John J. Marini described two different types of COVID-19 presentations, which they refer to as Type L and Type H. While one benefited from mechanical ventilation, the other did not.
Despite that, putting COVID patients on mechanical ventilation is “standard of care” for COVID across the U.S. to this day. Without doubt, most of the early COVID patients were killed from ventilator malpractice, and patients continue to be killed — not from COVID but from harmful treatments.
Better Alternatives to Ventilation Exist
Mechanical ventilation can easily damage the lungs as it’s pushing air into the lungs with force. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) would likely be a better alternative, as it allows your body to absorb a higher percentage of oxygen without forcing air into the lungs. HBOT also improves mitochondrial function, helps with detoxification, inhibits and controls inflammation and optimizes your body’s innate healing capacity.
Doctors have also had excellent results using high-flow nasal cannulas in lieu of ventilators. As noted in an April 2020 press release from doctors at UChicago Medicine:
“High-flow nasal cannulas, or HFNCs, are non-invasive nasal prongs that sit below the nostrils and blow large volumes of warm, humidified oxygen into the nose and lungs.
A team from UChicago Medicine’s emergency room took 24 COVID-19 patients who were in respiratory distress and gave them HFNCs instead of putting them on ventilators. The patients all fared extremely well, and only one of them required intubation after 10 days …
The HFNCs are often combined with prone positioning, a technique where patients lay on their stomachs to aid breathing. Together, they’ve helped UChicago Medicine doctors avoid dozens of intubations and have decreased the chances of bad outcomes for COVID-19 patients, said Thomas Spiegel, MD, Medical Director of University of Chicago Medicine’s Emergency Department. The proning and the high-flow nasal cannulas combined have brought patient oxygen levels from around 40% to 80% and 90% …”
How to Use Prone Positioning at Home
You can also use prone positioning at home if you struggle with a cough or have trouble breathing. If you’re struggling to breathe, you should seek emergency medical care. However, in cases of cough or mild shortness of breath being treated at home, try to avoid spending a lot of time lying flat on your back.
Guidelines from Elmhurst Hospital suggest “laying [sic] on your stomach and in different positions will help your body to get air into all areas of your lung.” The guidelines recommend changing your position every 30 minutes to two hours, including:
Lying on your belly
Lying on your right side
Lying on your left side
This is a simple way to potentially help ease breathing difficulties at home. If you or a loved one is hospitalized, this technique can be used there too.
Hospital Incentives Are Driving Up COVID Deaths
You might wonder why doctors and hospital administrators insist on using treatments known to be ineffective at best and deadly at worst, while stubbornly refusing to administer anything that has been shown to work, be it intravenous vitamin C, hydroxychloroquine and zinc, ivermectin or corticosteroids.
The most likely answer is because they’re protecting their bottom line. In the U.S., hospitals not only risk losing federal funding if they administer these treatments, but they also get a variety of incentives for doing all the wrong things. Hospitals receive payments for:
COVID testing for all patients
Admitting a “COVID patient”
Use of remdesivir
Use of mechanical ventilation
What’s worse, there’s evidence that certain hospital systems, and perhaps all of them, have waived patients’ rights, making anyone diagnosed with COVID a virtual prisoner of the hospital, with no ability to exercise informed consent. In short, hospitals are doing whatever they want with patients, and they have every incentive to maltreat them, and no incentive to give them treatments other than that dictated to them by the National Institutes of Health.
As reported by Citizens Journal, the U.S. government actually pays hospitals a “bonus” on the entire hospital bill if they use remdesivir, a drug shown to cause severe organ damage. Even coroners are given bonuses for every COVID-19 death.
A Bounty Has Been Placed on Your Life
“What does this mean for your health and safety as a patient in the hospital?” Citizens Journal asks. Without mincing words, it means your health is in severe jeopardy. Citizen Journal likens government-directed COVID treatments to a bounty placed on your life, where payouts are tied to your decline, not your recovery.
“For Remdesivir, studies show that 71–75% of patients suffer an adverse effect, and the drug often had to be stopped after five to 10 days because of these effects, such as kidney and liver damage, and death,” Citizen Journal writes.
“Remdesivir trials during the 2018 West African Ebola outbreak had to be discontinued because death rate exceeded 50%. Yet, in 2020, Anthony Fauci directed that Remdesivir was to be the drug hospitals use to treat COVID-19, even when the COVID clinical trials of Remdesivir showed similar adverse effects.
In ventilated patients, the death toll is staggering … [attorney Thomas] Renz announced at a Truth for Health Foundation Press Conference that CMS data showed that in Texas hospitals, 84.9% percent of all patients died after more than 96 hours on a ventilator.
Then there are deaths from restrictions on effective treatments for hospitalized patients. Renz and a team of data analysts have estimated that more than 800,000 deaths in America’s hospitals, in COVID-19 and other patients, have been caused by approaches restricting fluids, nutrition, antibiotics, effective antivirals, anti-inflammatories, and therapeutic doses of anti-coagulants.
We now see government-dictated medical care at its worst in our history since the federal government mandated these ineffective and dangerous treatments for COVID-19, and then created financial incentives for hospitals and doctors to use only those ‘approved’ (and paid for) approaches.
Our formerly trusted medical community of hospitals and hospital-employed medical staff have effectively become ‘bounty hunters’ for your life.
Patients need to now take unprecedented steps to avoid going into the hospital for COVID-19. Patients need to take active steps to plan before getting sick to use early home-based treatment of COVID-19 that can help you save your life.”
Treat COVID Symptoms Immediately and Aggressively
Considering the uncertainties around diagnosis, it’s best to treat any cold or flu-like symptoms early. At first signs of symptoms, start treatment. Perhaps it’s the common cold or a regular influenza, maybe it’s the much milder Omicron, but since it’s hard to tell, your best bet is to treat symptoms as you would treat earlier forms of COVID.
Considering how contagious Omicron is, chances are you’re going to get it, so buy what you’ll need now, so you have it on hand if/when symptoms arise. And, remember, this applies for those who have gotten the jab as well, since you’re just as likely to get infected — and perhaps even more so. Early treatment protocols with demonstrated effectiveness include:
After almost two years of restrictions aimed at curbing the transmission of COVID-19, the Icelandic Government finally announcedon Wednesday that all restrictions, including all testing and restrictions at the borders, will be lifted at midnight on Friday, February 25th.
The Minister for Healthcare, Willum Thor Thorsson, said that with the current level of infections, continued restrictions are useless. “Restrictions do not have any effect at this point in time,” he said. The Health Ministry also said the way to end the pandemic is herd immunity through infections, and it wants “as many people as possible” to be infected to achieve “widespread societal resistance”. Vaccines will not provide the necessary immunity.
Over the past weeks and months, mask mandates and strict limitations on gatherings have been in place, while infections have surged and the restrictions seem to have had no effect on transmission.
As much as 81% of the population above the age of four has been vaccinated at least twice. Official figures now show a higher infection rate among double-vaccinated adults and children than among the unvaccinated, and the boosters clearly do little to curb infections, as the infection rate for the triple vaccinated is now around 70% of that for the unvaccinated, and approaching it slowly but surely.
Almost a third of the population has tested positive and based on a recent local seroprevalence study it may be estimated that the actual proportion of the population that has been infected is close to two thirds.
The use of PCR tests for the general population has been discontinued and the crowd waiting outside the main testing centre in Reykjavik dispersed just after the Government made its announcement on Wednesday.
Most of the people in the street interviewed by the media seemed happy to get rid of the restrictions. The director of the Icelandic national hospital was worried though, and said this was too early.
Despite the decision made this week, the Icelandic Prime Minister said the possibility of new restrictions later on could not be ruled out, for example in the case of a new variant emerging. After the Healthcare Minister‘s announcement regarding the lack of effectiveness of the restrictions, it might be expected that a decision to reimpose them would have to rest on a stronger foundation than before.
Thorsteinn Siglaugsson is an economist who lives in Iceland. Find him on his blog.
How Many People Died from the Covid-19 Inoculation? An Estimate Based on a Survey of the United States Population(Working Paper)
This paper examines potential fatalities and injuries from the Covid-19 inoculation using an online “Covid-19 Health Experiences Survey” administered to a representative sample of the US population. The sample is composed of 3,000 respondents balanced on age, gender, and income to the extent possible. The survey was administered in December 2021, collecting information regarding respondents’ experiences with the Covid-19 illness and the Covid-19 inoculations as well as Covid-19 health experiences within respondents’ social circles. The survey also collected respondent economic and demographic information. Using these data, I find the following:
Covid-19 inoculation-related fatalities:
Assuming that all the respondents who know somebody who they believe died from the inoculation actually died from the inoculation, estimated fatalities are about 308,000.
Subtracting out those who may have died regardless of inoculation yields an estimated 260,000 inoculation-induced fatalities. This is an initial first pass estimate—more evaluation is needed.
Factors associated with being inoculated:
The likelihood of being inoculated is significantly less for those who identify themselves as African American, Hispanic, and Asian, and Republican or Independent. Democrats, Caucasians, and more the highly educated are more likely to be inoculated.
Those who indicated that they obtain information about Covid-19 from alterative news sources were less likely to be inoculated. Those who obtain information from mainstream news and official government source are more likely to be inoculated.
Knowing someone who experienced a significant health problem from the Covid-19 illness increased the likelihood of being inoculated.
Knowing someone who had been injured by the Covid-19 inoculation substantially reduced the likelihood of being inoculated.
The official position of the US government is that the Covid-19 inoculations have resulted in nine fatalities (CDC, 2022). The experiences shared by hundreds of respondents in this survey suggests that many people died or were injured following inoculation. Which data are more believable—nine fatalities or as many as 200,000 to 300,000 fatalities? Surveys have limitations in assessing the impacts of health interventions. However, this type of evaluation offers an important point of triangulation. The experiences of people captured in surveys generally should be consistent with official government data. In the case of Covid-19 inoculations, there is a tremendous divergence which should be cause for further inquiry. My hope is that this research will motivate a full and transparent examination by independent health and medical scholars to ascertain the degree of harm being caused by the Covid-19 inoculations.
In the UK it’s estimated only 1% of adverse effects are reported. With 1.4 million in severe adverse effects and 1,900 deaths on my last check 3 weeks ago this could be enormous. I know personally 6 that have died from the vaccine and one of those was my daughter’s 23-year-old best friend. A beautiful and fun-loving working young woman taken with a brain haemorrhage.
I know endless with many severe adverse effects, 2 on chemo, two with thrombosis, 2 with thyroid and 3 with heart problems and one who was in such a mess he thought it was the end. All these people are between 23 and 50. All fit and healthy.
I would rather be locked up for life than take their poison.
ANALYSIS: The authors of the recovery clinical trial (Peter Horby and Martin Landray) attempt to cover up a despicable fault in the hydroxychloroquine arm. Several elements are concerning : results that are hiding reality, unforgivable errors in the documents, the author of the appendix of the documents of the Recovery study (British clinical trial) is Dr Hayden known to be historically close to Gilead having taken on several occasions the defence of Remdesivir (drug that has recently been approved by the European Medicines Agency without evidence of therapeutic benefit and very harmful side effects). Hence the Recovery study cannot be considered serious.
We note that there is mounting evidence that hydroxychloroquine is active and tolerable against Covid-19.
Before exposing the intellectual fallacy and the real deadly implications of the results of Recovery which conclude that hydroxychloroquine is ineffective, we seek to expose the reader to the comprehensive analytical work carried out by FranceSoir in search for truth. In particular, we have revealed problems of medical ethics (1)and notorious incompetence (2), and even potentially criminal activities (3, 4), related to the Recovery trial, on which we have published a complete document demonstrating the existence of obvious conflicts of interest (5).
France Soir, with the help of scientists and clinical trial experts, has carried out a rigorous and meticulous analysis of the majority of studies published or submitted for pre-publication on the MedRxiv site of Cornell University. FranceSoir is the only print media to have scientifically dismantled, point by point, the highly questionable prepublications, whose conclusions were biased against hydroxychloroquine or in flagrant contradiction with the data exposed, as for the AP-HP study (6) or Epiphare (7). On the other hand, it is clear from other studies and clinical trials that hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), in combination with azithromycin which gives it considerable synergy, appears to be the only tolerable and active treatment against Covid-19 (8,9,10,11) and also suitable for prophylaxis (9).
We also bring to bear that the current pandemic has allowed members of the public, concerned about the health of their loved ones and themselves, to perceive the extent to which misinformation could circulate in the mainstream media. This led is evidence by the fact that only 7% of the French have confidence in what the messages broadcasted by television media about the pandemic (9).
“With a self-awarded white knight role, the media are no longer content to give a voice to one side or the other by commenting, in a quest for impartiality, but are setting themselves up as true referees of what is or is not scientific and medical truth.
In this respect, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been systematically denigrated as a target. Why has it been systematically denigrated? It was put in their heads that the randomized controlled clinical trial was the universal panacea of the reasoned medical scientific approach. This is particularly false in this case and in opposition to the medical ethics of the Hippocratic Oath (1),” says a medical research specialist.
However, this certainty, instilled by intense brainwashing by public health authorities and Big Pharma-funded television presenters, is crumbling and vacillating in the face of accumulated evidence (8,9,10,11) in favour of hydroxychloroquine and raises questions about how a molecule such as remesivir could have slipped through the cracks of the European Medicines Agency without toxicity testing.
What else can we say about the statement made by the French President on July 14th, in response to a question from a television journalist who asked him, if he would take hydroxychloroquine in the event of Covid-19 contamination?
“From what I understand about science, there is no such thing as a stabilized treatment. France is the country of “Lumière” and I believe in rationality … If there is no treatment, I’m not going to take it,” he said.
He added: “It is not for the President of the Republic or a politician to decide a scientific debate.”
But that is exactly what he just did live on the air!
And then speaking about Professor Raoult:
“Nor is it for a man of science, even if he becomes a public figure, to act on scientific beliefs.”
Is the President suggesting that Pr Raoult doesn’t act as a man of science, but on the basis of scientific belief? Would we have come to the apotheosis of denigrating a man whose entire career speaks for him? Is our President so unsecure, that he cannot help but say, that perhaps in a few months’ time we will learn that hydroxychloroquine is a really active treatment? When we have obviously known this for quite some time. These statements reveal how little our President cares about the possibility that this treatment could have saved lives.
The conditions surrounding Recovery (boundary conditions) give us an indepth
We believe the principal investigators of the Recovery trial are attempting to conceal the results of the very dangerous, even fatal, overdose of the hydroxychloroquine arm. The authors of the trial came very close to pre-publishing significant results demonstrating the harmful nature of HCQ!
First of all, it should be remembered that this is not a real publication, but a text filed on the MedRxiv site of Cornell University and that it was therefore not submitted to the proofreading and critical questions of other researchers in the clinical field. But never mind. The article still subtly suggests an adverse effect by presenting a survival curve showing a 2% increase in mortality at 28 days (from 25 to 26.8%) in the HCQ arm compared to standard care. This curve is presented with a Y-axis not going to 100% which exaggerates the 2% increase. This difference is not significant according to the value of the calculated statistical power p = 0.18.
We are here in very subtle communication effects which consist in hiding the reality one does not want to talk about. We demonstrated this phenomenon in the phase III study of remdesivir (Veklury®) published in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) where the results of the secondary endpoint of 28-day mortality were deliberately masked.
We state that if HCQ had been used at an acceptable dose level on the first day and on subsequent days a beneficial effect could have been measured. This effect is masked by the premature death or the premature transfer to ICU of hospitalized patients overdosed with HCQ within 48 hours of initiation of treatment. We remind the reader that patients received a cumulative dose of 3.2 g of HCQ in 48 hours, including 2.4 g on the first day, which represents a potentially fatal overdose on patients in this category (4). It should also be remembered that HCQ overdose is characterized by acute respiratory failure (4) which a priori cannot be distinguished from the respiratory symptoms due to Covid-19. On the other hand, only heart failure can be demonstrated (prolongation of the QT interval and twisting of the electrocardiogram peaks).
We also asked in a previous article if, in the Recovery trial, hydroxychloroquine had not killed as many patients as it had saved?
Is it possible that the beneficial effect of a treatment may be masked by a harmful effect such as overdose, comedication or an increased risk factor for certain categories of patients?
We have already recently highlighted such a problem of masking the beneficial effect of HCQ by contradictory effects in our careful reverse engineering analysis of the EPIPHARE study (7). EPIPHARE sought to determine whether HCQ conferred protection from Covid-19-related hospitalization and mortality in patients receiving long-term treatment for chronic inflammatory conditions (lupus and rheumatoid arthritis). The authors concluded that HCQ does not confer protection on these autoimmune patients, who are a priori more likely to develop viral infections than the rest of the population. We showed that the authors of this study were withholding data that they had available and that could have led to the opposite conclusion of a protective effect of HCQ. A Chinese study published in the Lancet on July 3 confirms this. In the Chinese study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis taking hydroxychloroquine had a 91% reduced risk of infection with the COVID-19 virus (with a statistically significant power p = 0.044) compared to those with the same chronic inflammatory diseases, but not on long-term HCQ treatment.
To continue with the results here are some of what the author states
Results: 1561 patients randomly assigned to receive hydroxychloroquine were compared to 3155 patients simultaneously assigned to usual care. Overall, 418 (26.8%) patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine and 788 (25.0%) patients assigned to usual care died within 28 days (ratio 1.09 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96 to 1.23 P=0.18). Consistent results were seen in all pre-specified patient subgroups.
Patients assigned to hydroxychloroquine were less likely to be discharged alive from hospital within 28 days (60.3% vs. 62.8% rate ratio 0.92 95% CI 0.85-0.99 p missing) and those not on invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline were more likely to achieve the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (29.8% vs. 26.5% risk ratio 1.12; 95% CI 1.01-1.25 p missing). There was no excess of new major cardiac arrhythmias.
How with 5000 patients we get such a high p for mortality when we are told; the advantage and necessity of the randomized trial is to have a very small “p”. The advantage and necessity of the randomized trial is to have a very small “p”. 500 patients per group would suffice. It is mathematical.
Why is the “p”not given for the 2 other tests when on these 2 measures the authors conclude a significant difference?
Our clinical trial expert tells us:
“In fact, the general question is, what went wrong with the data that made such a large trial yield no significant result?”
One gets the impression that the “results are deliberately insignificant” in order to hide a disturbing reality.
To finish off, the icing on the cake: the author of the appendix to Recovery is none other than Frederic Hayden, a doctor historically close to Gilead.
The author of the document is not one of the members of Recovery, but Frederic Hayden of the University of Virginia. One could almost believe that the Recovery team no longer wants to write the results of the study and is subcontracting it to another university. We had already mentioned this professor in a previous paper that was used primarily to get a valid clinical trial number in the United States. This same professor is a strong advocate of Gilead’s recovery being quoted as saying of this drug that “this is the first convincing evidence that an antiviral drug can really benefit Covid-19 patients, especially patients hospitalized with Covid-19”.
He participated in the Chinese remdesivir study and is quoted in Fortune.com as having defended the remdesivir study. He is also known to have been close to Gilead since the HIV.
Finally he was one of the key investigators on Gilead’s Tamiflu.
As in a bad movie, Gilead will have pushed its remdesivir, authorized by Europe without the slightest toxicity study, but it will have gone a long way to disqualify its effective, inexpensive, innocuous competitor, hydroxychloroquine. This battle with unequal weapons does not serve the interest of public health but benefits the mastodons of the pharmaceutical industry, prepared to anything. The story of recovery is not over and we would not be surprised to see a mixture of dexamethasone and remdesivir point its nose shortly as a potential combination of drugs. The marketing techniques already used by Gilead are repeating themselves.